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Stop the Spread of Superbugs


For nearly a century, bacteria-fighting drugs known as antibiotics have
helped to control and destroy many of the harmful bacteria that can make
us sick. In recent decades, antibiotics have been losing their punch
against some types of bacteria. In fact, certain bacteria are now
unbeatable with today’s medicines. Sadly, the way we’ve been using
antibiotics is helping to create new drug-resistant “superbugs.”

Superbugs are strains of bacteria that are resistant to several types of
antibiotics. Each year, these drug-resistant bacteria infect more than 2
million people nationwide and kill at least 23,000, according to the
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis, gonorrhea, and staph infections are just a few of the dangers we now face.

Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drugs for people.
They’re also given to livestock to prevent disease and promote growth.
Antibiotics are effective against bacterial infections, such as strep
throat and some types of pneumonia, diarrheal diseases, and ear
infections. These drugs don’t work at all against viruses, such as those
that cause colds or flu.

Unfortunately, many antibiotics prescribed to people and to animals are
unnecessary, and the overuse and misuse of antibiotics helps to create
drug-resistant bacteria.

Here’s how that might happen. When used properly, antibiotics can help
destroy disease-causing bacteria. If you take an antibiotic when you
have a viral infection like the flu, the drug won’t affect the viruses
making you sick. Instead, it’ll destroy a wide variety of bacteria in
your body, including some of the “good” bacteria that help you digest
food, fight infection, and stay healthy. Bacteria that are tough enough
to survive the drug will have a chance to grow and quickly multiply.
These drug-resistant strains may even spread to other people.

Over time, if more and more people take antibiotics when not necessary,
drug-resistant bacteria can continue to thrive and spread. They may even
share their drug-resistant traits with other bacteria. Drugs may become
less effective or not work at all against certain disease-causing

“Bacterial infections that were treatable for decades are no longer
responding to antibiotics, even the newer ones,” says Dr. Dennis Dixon,
an NIH expert in bacterial and fungal diseases. Scientists have been
trying to keep ahead of newly emerging drug-resistant bacteria by
developing new drugs, but it’s a tough task.

“We need to make the best use of the drugs we have, as there aren’t many
in the antibiotic development pipeline,” says Dr. Jane Knisely, who
oversees studies of drug-resistant bacteria at NIH. “It’s important to
understand the best way to use these drugs to increase their
effectiveness and decrease the chances of resistance to emerge.”

You can help slow the spread of drug-resistant bacteria by taking
antibiotics properly and only when needed. Don’t insist on an antibiotic
if your health care provider advises otherwise. For example, many
parents expect doctors to prescribe antibiotics for a child’s ear
infection, but experts recommend delaying for a time in certain
situations, as many ear infections get better without antibiotics.

NIH researchers have been looking at whether antibiotics are effective
for treating certain conditions in the first place. One recent study
showed that antibiotics may be less effective than previously thought
for treating a common type of sinus infection. This kind of research can
help prevent the misuse and overuse of antibiotics.

“Treating infections with antibiotics is something we want to preserve
for generations to come, so we shouldn’t misuse them,” says Dr. Julie
Segre, a senior investigator at NIH.

In the past, some of the most dangerous superbugs have been confined to
healthcare settings. That’s because people who are sick or in a weakened
state are more susceptible to picking up infections. Superbug
infections aren’t limited to hospitals. Some strains are out in the
community and anyone, even healthy people, can become infected.

One common superbug increasingly seen outside hospitals is
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). These bacteria don’t
respond to methicillin and related antibiotics. MRSA can cause skin
infections and, in more serious cases, pneumonia or bloodstream

A MRSA skin infection can appear as one or more pimples or boils that
are swollen, painful, or hot to the touch. The infection can spread
through even a tiny cut or scrape that comes into contact with these
bacteria. Many people recover from MRSA infections, but some cases can
be life threatening. The CDC estimates that more than 80,000 aggressive
MRSA infections and 11,000 related deaths occur each year in the United

When antibiotics are needed, doctors usually prescribe a mild one before
trying something more aggressive like vancomycin. Such newer
antibiotics can be more toxic and more expensive than older ones.
Eventually, bacteria will develop resistance to even the new drugs. In
recent years, some superbugs, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococci
bacteria, remain unaffected by even this antibiotic of last resort.

“We rely on antibiotics to deliver modern health care,” Segre says. With
the rise of drug-resistant bacteria, “we’re running out of new
antibiotics to treat bacterial infections,” and some of the more potent
ones aren’t working as well.”

Ideally, doctors would be able to quickly identify the right antibiotic
to treat a particular infection, but labs need days or even weeks to
test and identify the bacteria strain. Until the lab results come in,
antibiotic treatment is often an educated guess.

“We need to know how to treat for a favorable outcome, but knowledge
about the infection can be several days away,” explains Dr. Vance
Fowler, an infectious disease expert at Duke University School of

Fowler says faster diagnostic testing offers one of the best hopes for
treating infectious diseases. Technology is catching up, he says, and
new research in this area looks promising.

Genetic studies by NIH-supported researchers such as Segre and Fowler
are also helping us understand the unique characteristics of
antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Their findings could point the way to
innovative new treatments.

While scientists search for ways to beat back these stubborn bacteria,
you can help by preventing the spread of germs so that we depend less on
antibiotics in the first place.

The best way to prevent bacterial infections is by washing your hands
frequently with soap and water. It’s also a good idea not to share
personal items such as towels or razors. Use antibiotics only as
directed. We can all do our part to fight drug-resistant bacteria.

Source: NIH News in Health